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He did not know at the time what he was doing, he simply did it. Lanzmann asks him whether he was married at the time and he says no. He says he had dealings with only a few Germans. A new reel begins and Pankiewicz returns to the fact that the Jews have built a small legend out of him, but that he only did what one human should do for other humans who were in a tragic situation. Contains documentation, including indices, summaries, transcripts, and translations, compiled by Claude Lanzmann while developing the film "Shoah.

Several former Jewish policemen from Riga, Latvia describe the division of the ghetto into sections for Latvian Jews and German Jews, dealing with the Nazi discovery of a secret weapons cache, and responsibilities as Jewish police. The material also contains a short interview with veteran frontline soldier, Friedrich Baer, and shots of the conference. The first man on right describes how the ghetto was partitioned into two sections: one for the German Jews, one for the Latvian Jews.

The three interviewees resided in the German section. Each side had a police force comprised of its own residents. The man recounts that one day he was called to a meeting by the German authorities. This was already well into their time of captivity in the ghetto: they had arrived in January of , and the meeting took place at some point during He, along with other young, strong German Jewish men, had been designated to police the Latvian section of the ghetto.

As it turns out, several Latvian Jews had escaped; their police were blamed and executed for the incident. The three men go on to relate their experiences as policemen. They had little real authority, carried no weapons, and, it seems, mainly served to assist the SS in "keeping order" and cleaning up after executions, which they were forced to attend.

The audio continues for a few seconds after the video ends. One recounts how he was sent to investigate a hidden weapons cache which had been smuggled, piece by piece, into the Latvian side of the ghetto. The weapons were brought out by German soldiers and the Latvian side of the ghetto was closed. Lanzmann comments on the survivors' willingness to talk: survivors who had served as policemen in other ghettos, such as Lodz, refused to talk about their involvement.

These men from Riga, however, claim to have had a different experience: whereas police from other ghettos may or may not have been seen as collaborators by fellow Jews, these police from Riga had no choice in the matter. They were told to serve and could not refuse. Moreover, they actively used their unique position to help their comrades, whether that had been by alerting them to searches conducted by the SS or security, turning a blind eye to allow Latvian Jews into the German section, smuggling people into jail to pay visits to family members, etc.

Thus, others may have been less inclined to see them as collaborators deserving of condemnation; neither do these men view themselves as such. After the war he worked in a department store in Gelsenkirchen until when he was sent to Oranienburg concentration camp. After a month at the camp he was released, and subsequently immigrated to Panama. They occasionally glance at the camera.

People converse with each other at the conference in New York.


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Woman at the mic announces winning raffle ticket numbers. People receive prizes. The reels are marked "Retirages de Shoah" which roughly translates to "Miscellaneous Reprints of Shoah". Retirages de Shoah Slate reads 'Cracovie' Krakow ; shots of three war-era photographs: many people walking in the street, carrying their belongings in large sacs; a soldier in uniform stands on a set of trolley tracks in the middle of a street, with a military truck in the background; a wide shot of an empty street littered with people's belongings, while a large group of people stand near a military truck in the background.

Chelmno'; close-up of a memorial plaque, which reads in Polish 'Here lie the ashes of , Polish Jews and 20, Jews from other European countries'; the camera zooms out from the plaque, showing that it is affixed to a stone at the foot of an enormous field; a shot of the memorial on the site of Chelmno: a huge concrete slab with the words of a poem written by a Chelmno prisoner.

Snowy street scenes in a town. Slate reads 'LOD 28', end of reel. Retirages de Shoah Slate: 'Pologne 2 Bob. Lanzmann] Drive by snow covered fields with trees in background. Israel Pan over trees. Crew member boom mic. Soldiers surround the memorial.

Nazi Collaborators or Victims?

Baskets on the ground. A crowd of women approach, some holding flowers and emotional. They stop at a tomb and place the flowers. The cameraman tries to record people's reactions. Factory in the distance. Vast desert landscape. Scenes from a moving vehicle driving on a road through the desert. Bob Herd of sheep makes its way through the desert, camel in the BG.


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Car drives along cliff, possibly near Masada. Cemetery, graves, cars. Small plane.


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Soldiers on road. Kids play and joke. Donkeys pull wagons. Soldiers get into a truck. Bright green crops.

(License To Kill)

Lanzmann filmed the few surviving Jews of Corfou, Greece. Many are craftsmen who experienced deportation to Auschwitz and Birkenau. Some interviews take place in the synagogue and the cemetery. Location filming shows local merchants and shops. The four survivors walk towards the camera. Christians gathered to watch out of curiosity. Jews who didn't report were shot. Aaron refers to the Rikanati brothers - Jews who helped the Germans - and the level of anti-Semitism in Greece at the time.

Jewish property was stolen by the Germans and given to the Greek state.

Also in Claude Lanzmann Shoah Collection

He and the other survivors describe the terrible boat transport to Haidari camp near Athens and then by rail to Auschwitz, which took nine days. Only 65 Jews remain in Corfu today. He says it was very difficult to return to Corfu after the war. Lanzmann presses him to explain why he is so afraid, even today.

Aaron doesn't really respond and instead briefly explains the processing at the fort during the deportation again. CU of the camp tattoo on his arm. He reads the number on his arm in Italian. He is the only survivor of his family. He speaks with tears in his eyes. He chants in Hebrew.

Project MUSE - Recently Published Works in Holocaust and Genocide Studies

There is some conversation, but it is not coherent. CUs of rabbi and Holocaust survivors praying, gathered at entrance. Holocaust survivors praying, CUs of their tattoos. Rabbi leads the services.

Mordu, Mr. Levi, Mr. Osmo, and others. He asks the rabbi through an interpreter in Italian and Hebrew if the survivors believe in God, if their faith was shaken because of Auschwitz. The rabbi says that Israel was God's miracle. The men say that the Jews of Corfu were faithful before the Holocaust and that Jewish life was strong at times talking over one another.

Camera follows a man Marco Osmo? Multiple takes of the delivery man walking in the alley with the wheelbarrow, passing spectators and shoppers.