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In Keis et al. Although coconut oil penetrates, the fiber and mineral oil does not, there is the equivalent reduction on water sorption for both oils. Increasing the thickness of the oil layer on the fiber surface increased hair moisture regain.

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The oil that remains in the cuticle layer and not the oil that penetrates the cortex is the one responsible for the decrease in the water pick up. Marrocan argan oil has become very popular as a hair cosmetic main ingredient, referred as capable of keeping the hair moisturized and hydrophobic. Morocco's argan oil is now the most expensive edible oil in the world. The argan tree Argania spinosa L.

Skeels , an endemic tree in Morocco, is the most remarkable species in North Africa, due to its botanical and bioecologic interest as well as its social value. The oil is rich in tocopherols and polyphenols, powerful antioxidants. The fruit drying time influences the quality of the extracted oil. There are two main ways for a substance to penetrate the hair fiber: Transcellular and intercellular diffusion, transcellular diffusion envolves epicuticle, A-layer, exocuticle, endocuticle and is much harder path way because of the high cross-linked regions.

Intercellular diffusion envolves the intercellular cement, and it is the preferred route for large molecules because the low-sulfur and nonkeratin proteins are more easily swollen. Both routes can occur depending on the size of the molecule, hair damage and cosmetic system of the applied product.

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Diffusion rate into keratin fibers depends on the cross-link density of hair. Reactions like bleaching, that decreases the cross-link density increases the rate of transcellular diffusion, meaning that bleached hair is more rapid penetrated by conditioners, dyes, hair straightening substances or any product applied to the hair fiber.

However, penetration into the intercellular regions can lead to scale lifting and cause hair damage.

Scale lifting is induced by the deposit of insoluble cationic-anionic complex, meaning which can occur because of the interaction and bonding of the anionic surfactants of the shampoo with the cationic conditioning ingredients. Creme rinses basically contain cationic surfactants, long-chain fatty alcohol or other lipid components.

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Cationic polymers are the also used, such as polyquaternarium Some examples that we can find among the ingredients are cetrimonium chloride and stearalkonium chloride. Examples of lipids are cetyl alcohol, stearyl alcohol or silicones such as dimethicone. Deep conditioners contain more concentrated ingredients or just more viscosity.

Some polymers are reported to build-up the hair and bind to anionic surfactants.


The complex resists shampooing from hair. Creme rinses are supposed to be rinsed with water. Setting lotions or mousse known as leave-on products are designed to be applied on wet hair or dry hair and left without rinsing. They are aqueous based or alcohol-water solvent systems. These products do not form rigid bonds and act by enhancing interfiber forces and by providing a detangling effect to facilitate combing and style retention.

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Afro-ethnic hair presents variation of diameter at several points along the thread the diameter at twisting points is smaller than at other areas , less water content, and most importantly, an ellipsoid shape. Hair fibers present torsions at many regions along the thread, while Caucasian hair has a cylindrical cross-section.

The small angle of the waves of very curly hair makes it more susceptible to breakage, when mechanically worked making curly hair more difficult to comb without provoking frizz. Although the production of sebum is high on African hair, curly and wavy hair they are more prone to have oily scalp but dryer hair fiber.

Sebaceous glands of African descendants are frequently less active, when compared with the Caucasian ones, and they produce low amounts of sebum. This way, both scalp and threads are dry because they do not have good lubrication, even when the cuticle is preserved and the scalp tends to be less hydrated. Usually, the scalp is relatively dry in order to the naturally irregular distribution of sebum.

But, as the fiber is extremely sensible and prone to breakage it is not unusual that curly and straightened hair do not achieve long length and breaks during the growing process. Fine straight hair can transport sebum very well, and curly-coarse hair tend to minimize tress clumping and limpness. The use of conditioners and leave-on products decrease interfiber friction making hair easier to comb. Chargeability also decreases helping to improve dry combing. The use of anti-dandruff shampoos can make hair more difficult to comb. High cleansing shampoos remove surface oils and increase chargeability by depositing small amounts of anionic surfactants onto the hair.

Less flyaway is achievable by lubricating the fiber surface and decreasing static charge. Grooming a nonlubrified hair may lead to hair breakage. Abrasion and friction are impactant factors that cause hair damage by protein loss.

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The use of conditioners with oils and silicones are important to minimize the rubbing and friction of the cuticle cells for chemical treated hair and after the use of anti-dundruff shampoos. The number of hair follicles in Caucasians is This is the way the African descendants may experience some feeling of hair loss after performing a hair straightening procedure because when the hair loses volume, the scalp may be exposed because of the lower number of hair follicles.

Patients want their hair to be resistant to breakage with no split ends. Hair strength is a mix of hair body mass and resistance to breakage. A strong hair is a hair with its full capacity of growing healthy in both diameter and length and an intact cuticle and cortex. We know that split ends are more likely to occur in weathered and oxidized hair. But, split ends happen when the cuticle is removed damaged and the cortex-cortex CMC serves as a route for the propagation of axial splits in the fiber, leading to the formation of cracks and split ends.

Hair strength depends on cuticle integrity and amount of water in the fibers, conditions that are related to chemical damage. Chemical damage by bleaches, dyes, straighteners and even sunlight can weaken hair and increase inter-fiber friction, leading to breakage. An important factor involved in hair breakage is the occurrence of tangles created by combing forces. Where the break occurs along the fiber, correspond to the point of higher combing forces.

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  8. The type of fracture depends on hair condition and wet versus dry combing or brushing. Combing dry hair is more related to short segment breaks, and wet combing is related to long segment breaks. The short segment breaks are more related to split ends. Straight to wavy hair combed dry, produces higher end pick forces than mid-length forces, but when wet, produces higher mid-length combing forces corresponding to where hair breaks and to the amount of breakage. The work of combing highly coiled hair is lower wet than dry.

    The reverse holds for wavy to straight hair. Split ends form more readily from the abrasion friction in combination with torsional deformations grooming and styling. Splitting occur when the cuticle is damaged and weakened. Crack is formed in the cortex. Few cuticle layers do not hold the ends of the hair fiber together. Also, highly oxidized cortex cell membrane by free radical chemistry is more susceptible to split.

    Hair treated with free radical cosmetics and exposed to sunlight is susceptible to splitting. Also, hair body is maybe defined as the structural strength and resiliency of a hair mass, sensed by patients as having a soft and firm touch and full volume.

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    Full volume is meaning a scalp full covered with terminal hair fibers that grow to the desired length without breaking. Strong hair appears as long, full, shiny, manageable hair. Manageable hair is the same as easy combable hair, perceived as soft hair, easy to finger comb. Weak hair appears as dull, with irregular length due to split ends , frizzed, rough, sometimes with low density on the scalp, tangled and difficult to finger comb.

    Prescription medications are often focused on improving scalp hair density. Dermatologists are very used to prescribe minoxidil and finasteride in order to stimulate the anagen hair phase. But it is not always possible to obtain terminal thick hair fiber. Many postmenopausal women may achieve a better cosmetic look if the medical prescription is combined to cosmetic hair care products that may increase hair fiber diameter in a nonpermanent way.

    Fiber diameter is another key contributor to thinning hair, but it is less often the focus of medical or cosmetic treatments.

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    7. Acrylate polymer combined with dimethicone may affect the diameter and behavior of scalp hair fibers to counteract decreasing fiber diameters. It may be applied in the morning, leaving minoxidil to be used at bed time. In the work of Davis et al. Shampoo must aim the scalp more than a hair. The entire scalp has to be rubbed with the shampoo from the front to the back, and small amounts of shampoo have to be applied on each region of the head under the hair.

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